Learning types and learning styles – promote targeted learning with the knowledge about them
If you read about learning types in the media, the term learning style is actually meant in the sense of learning psychology. The word learning type is based on two theoretical approaches that are controversial among learning psychologists due to their superficial treatment of the topic or incorrect translation from English. On the one hand, the term refers to a theory by Frederic Vester, which he first published in 1975 in his work “Thinking, Learning, Forgetting – What’s going on in our heads, how does the brain learn, and when does it let us down?” described. On the other hand, the word learning type is often used in didactic literature as a translation of a classification by Robert Gagné. He spoke of “types of learning”, which, however, meant more the types of learning than the learning types.
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Overview of learning types – What learning styles are there?
In learning psychology, the term learning style is preferred to learning type, and there are a number of different models that teachers and learners can use as a guide. To control one’s own learning process, on the other hand, the term learning strategy is mostly used. Learning styles are often based on sensory impressions that influence the transmission of information. A distinction is often made between four types:
- visual learning
- auditory learning
- Haptic-motor learning
- Communicative Learning
Good educators will take different learning styles into account when designing their lessons. Learners who have found their preferred learning style find it easier to prepare for class or seminar papers or exams. Most people do not prefer any of the learning styles mentioned individually, but use hybrid forms of them.
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The visual learning
In visual learning, the learning process is supported by images and graphic representations. A picture can also be the written word on a blackboard. Diagrams, tables and sketches also help the learner to retain the learning content better.
The auditory learning
Some people remember what they hear much better than the written word or pictures. In most cases, however, the learning content has to be heard repeatedly in order to be remembered. Foreign languages in particular can be learned well in this way. Modern technology makes this easier with audio courses that can be played back on a computer, smartphone or MP3 player, for example.
Haptic-motor or kinesthetic learning
This primarily means learning through practical experience and through action during the learning process. This learning style is often used even with young children, for example when learning terms through singing and dancing games. At school, experiments, practical work and excursions facilitate haptic-motor learning.
The communicative learning
The communicative learning style requires interaction with other learners, for example through discussions and exchanges about the learning content.
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